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Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Define the scripting techniques for test automation?

The main goal of the test automation process is that a highly maintainable and modular frame work should be developed. In a good automated test framework all the modules are independent and distinct from each other and what is happening inside the frame work are not a thing to be bothered by the outsiders. This is all possible with good test scripts. 

Why Scripts are useful?

- With the help of the scripts, the functionality contained inside each module can be readily expanded without causing any impact on other parts of the software system and application.
Such scripting makes the maintenance of the program code much easier than ever it would be. 
- In addition to this, the complexity of the module will also be reduced with such good scripting. 
However, maintaining the modularity of the frame work alone will not help, the test scripts should be fully documented. 
- Without adequate documentation, no body will be able to understand properly the working of the test scripts. 
- If this scripting has not been done properly than our test automation process is sure to become a negative statistic for us. 

What are different Scripting Techniques for Test Automation?

1. Linear scripting technique: 
- This scripting technique is quite a simple one and follows simple recording and playback. 
- This is often used by the testers and developers for carrying out the automation of the test cases as well as test flows of the software system or application under question. 
- This technique consists of some redundant functions that are not always required. 
- Some other features of this technique are:
(a)   It is a non structured way of scripting.
(b)   Scripts define the test cases.
(c)    Low development costs.
(d)   Scripts are not shared.
(e)   Scripts are fragile.

     2. Structured scripting: 
     - This scripting technique employs the control structures in the scripts. 
   - With these control structures the testers are able to control the flow of the test cases and scripts. 
    - This one unlike the linear technique is a structured way of scripting and costs a little more. 
    - Its other features are:
     (a) Scripts define the test cases.
     (b) Testers require intermediate programming skills. 
      (c)  Some planning is required.
     (d)  Scripts consist of data as hard core. 
      (e)  Scripts are robust and require less maintenance.
     (f)   Scripting knowledge and programming knowledge is required.

    3. Shared scripting:
   - In this scripting technique, the scripts represent the behavior of the application that is shared among the other scripts. 
    - The functionality is scripted as shared scripts which are then called by the other scripts. 
    - Using technique can make the scripts modular in terms of the functionality that is common.
    - Other features of this scripting technique are:
    (a)  Structured scripts.
    (b)  Scripts define test cases.
    (c)  Low development costs.
    (d)  More planning required.
    (e)  Low script maintenance.

    4. Data driven scripting: 
  - In this scripting technique, the data is kept separated from the scripts and stored in to the external repository as files. 
   - We can say that these scripts are constituted of just programmed code. 
   - Other features of this scripting technique are:
   (a)  Scripts are programmed.
   (b)  Scripts are structured.
   (c)  Test scripts define test cases.
   (d)  High development costs when compared to shared scripting.
   (e)  High programming skills required.
   (f)  Data is isolated. Low script maintenance.
   (g)  Is used where both negative and positive data testing is required.

   5. Key word driven testing: 
   - This scripting technique develops scripts that are used to check and execute the operations that are maintained with the externalized data files. 
   - We can call it as an extension of the data driven scripting technique.  

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