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Saturday, September 7, 2013

Explain the concept of inter-networking?

- The practice in which one computer network is connected with the other networks is called inter-networking. 
- The networks are connected with the help of gateways. 
- These gateways are used since they offer a common method for routing the data packets across the networks.
- The resulting system in which a number of networks are connected is called the inter-network or more commonly as the internet. 
- The terms “inter” and “networking” combine together to form the term “internet working”.  
- Internet is the best and the most popular example of the inter networking. 
Internet has formed as a result of many networks connected with the help of numerous technologies. 
- Many types of hardware technologies underlie the internet. 
- The internet protocol suite (IP suite) is the inter networking protocol standard responsible for unifying the diverse networks. 
- This protocol is more commonly known as the TCP/ IP. 
- Two computer local area networks (LANs) connected to one another by means of a router form the smallest internet but not the inter network. 
Inter networking is not formed by simply connecting two LANs together via a hub or a switch. 
- This is called expansion of the original local area network. 
Inter networking was started as a means for connecting the disparate networking technologies. 
- Eventually, it gained widespread popularity because of the development needs of connecting many local area networks together through some kind of WAN (wide area network). 
- “Catenet” was the original term that was used for the inter network. 
Inter network includes many types of other networks such as the PAN or personal area network. 
- Gateways were the network elements that were originally used for connecting various networks in predecessor of the internet called the ARPANET. 
Today, these connecting devices are more commonly known as the internet routers. 
- There is a type of interconnection between the various networks at the link layer of the networking model. 
- This layer is particularly known as the hardware centric layer and it lies below the TCP/ IP logical interfaces level. 

Two devices are mainly used in establishing this interconnection:
Ø  Network switches and
Ø  Network bridges
- Even now this cannot be called as inter networking rather, the system is just a single and large sub-network. 
- Further, for traversing these devices no inter networking protocol is required. 
However, it is possible to convert a single network in to an inter network. 
- This can be done by making various segments out of the network and also making logical divisions of the segment traffic using the routers. 
- The internet protocol suite has been particularly designed for providing a packet service. 
- This packet service offered by the IPS is quite unreliable. 
- The elements that maintain a network state and are intermediate in the network are avoided by the architecture. 
- The focus of the architecture is more on the end points of the active communication session.
- For a reliable transfer of the data, a proper transport layer protocol must be used by the applications. 
- One such protocol is the TCP (transmission control protocol) and it is capable of providing a reliable stream for communication. 
- Sometimes a simpler protocol such as the UDP (user datagram protocol) might be used by the applications. 
- The applications using this protocol carry out only those tasks for which reliable data delivery is not required or for which realtime is required. 

Examples of such tasks include voice chat or watching a video online etc. Inter networking uses two architectural models namely:

  1. OSI or the open system interconnection model: This model comes with 7 layer architecture that covers the hardware and the software interface.
  2. TCP/ IP model: The architecture of this model is somewhat loosely defined when compared with the OSI model. 

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