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Saturday, September 14, 2013

Explain Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)?

- BGP or Border gateway protocol is the set of rules that is implemented for making the routing decisions at the core of the internet. 
- It involves the use of the IP networks table or we can say prefixes which are used for designating the reach-ability of the network to the autonomous systems. 
- This protocol falls under the category of the path vector protocol or sometimes classified as a variant of the distance vector routing protocols. 
- The metrics of the IGP or the interior gateway protocol are not used by the border gateway protocol rather paths, rule sets or polices are used for making decisions for routing. 
- This is why the border gateway protocol is often called a reach-ability protocol rather than being termed as a routing protocol. 
- The BGP has ultimately replaced the EGP or the exterior gateway protocol. 
This is so because it allows the full decentralization of the routing process for making transition between the ARPANET model’s core and the decentralized system that consists of a NSFNET backbone and the regional networks associated with it. 
- The present version of the BGP that is being used is the version 4. 
- The earlier versions were discarded for being obsolete. 
- The major advantage is of the classless inter-domain routing and availability of a technique called the route aggregation for making reductions in the routing size. 
- The use of the BGP has made the whole routing system a decentralized system.
- BGP is used by most of the internet service providers for establishing a route between them. 
- This is done especially when the ISPs are multi-homed. 
- That’s why even though it is not used directly by the users; it is still one of the most important protocols in networking. 
- The BGP is used internally by a number of large private IP networks. 
- For example, it is used to combine many large open shortest path first or OSPF networks where these networks do not have the capability to scale to the size by themselves. 
- BGP is also used for multi-homing a network so as to provide a better redundancy. 
- This can be either to many ISPs or to a single ISP’s multi access points. 
Neighbors of the border gateway protocol are known as the peers. 
- They are created by manually configuring the two routers so as to establish a TCP session on the port. 
- Messages called the 19 byte keep alive messages are sent to the port periodically by the BGP speaker for maintaining the connection. 
- Among the various routing protocols, the most unique is BGP since it relies up on TCP for transporting. 
- When the protocol is implemented in the autonomous system among two peers, it is called IBGP or the internal border gateway protocol. 
- The protocol is termed as the EBGP or the external border gateway protocol when it runs between many autonomous systems.
- Border edge routers are the routers that are implemented on the boundary for exchanging information between various autonomous systems.
- BGP speakers have the capability for negotiating with the session’s option capabilities such as the multi-protocol extensions and a number of recovery modes. 
- The NLRI (network layer reach-ability information) can be prefixed by the BGP speaker if at the time of the creation itself, the multi-protocol extensions are negotiated. 
- The NLRI is advertised along with some address family prefix. 
The family consists of the following:
Ø  IPv4
Ø  IPv6
Ø  Multicast BGP
Ø  IPv4/ IPv6 virtual private networks

- These days the border gateway protocol is being commonly employed as the generalized signaling protocol whose purpose is to carry information via the routes that might not form the global internet’s part. 

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