- Lock concurrency control methods: Example, 2PL, SS2PL etc.
- Non – lock concurrency control methods: Example, timestamp ordering method.
In this article we focus upon the latter one (Non – lock concurrency control methods). This method is widely used for handling transactions safely with the help of time stamps. Let us see how it operates.
The timestamp ordering mechanism makes three assumptions prior to operating:
- The value of every timestamp is unique and the time instant it represents is accurate.
- There are no duplicate timestamps.
- The lower – valued time stamp occurs before a higher – valued timestamp.
There are three methods that for generating the timestamps:
- It takes the values from the system clock as timestamp when the transaction starts.
- It uses a thread – safe shared counter as timestamp and it is incremented when the transaction starts.
- It combines the above two methods.
Formal: A transaction is considered to have an ordered list of operations. Before the first operation begins, the current timestamp is marked on the transaction. An initial empty set of transactions and empty set of objects is assigned to every transaction on which it depends and updates respectively. Two timestamp fields are given to each object which are meant to be used only for concurrency control.
Informal: A timestamp is assigned to the transaction at the very beginning. This makes it possible to tell in which order the transactions have to be applied. So when we have two transactions meant for operating on the same object, the one with the lower timestamp is executed first. However, if this transaction is incorrect, then it must be aborted immediately and restarted. The object has one read timestamp and one write timestamp, both of which are updated when the corresponding read and write operations are carried out.
Two cases are considered when an object has to be read by a transaction:
- The transaction starts prior to the write timestamp: This indicates that the data of the object was changed by something. The transaction is aborted and then restarted.
- The transactions starts after the write timestamp: The transaction can safely read the object. The read timestamp is changed to transaction timestamp.
The following cases are considered when an object has to be written or updated by a transaction:
- Transaction starts prior to read timestamp: This indicates that the object has been read by something. Assuming that the reading transaction has a copy of the data, we don’t write to it for preventing changes from being made to the copy. So we abort and restart the transaction.
- Transaction starts prior to the write timestamp: This means that the object was changed by something at the starting time of our transaction. Here we apply the Thomas write rule, skipping the current operation and then continuing as normal. Aborting and restarting is not required.
- The transaction changes the object and its timestamp is written over by the write timestamp.
Recoverability: In this concurrency control method, recoverable histories are not produced. To make recovery possible, we have to employ a scheduler for keeping a list of transactions having read from. Unless there are only committed transactions in the list, a transaction should not be allowed to commit. Also the data produced by uncommitted transactions can be tagged as dirty and read operations should be banned from using such data as a measure against cascading aborts. The scheduler should not permit transactions to carry out any operations on dirty data so as to maintain a strict history.