- The dirty read problem: One transaction say A reads a data item which has been already written by another transaction say B which later aborted. This value is a result of an aborted operation and therefore is not valid and should not be read by other transactions. This is called dirty read. As a result of this, the transaction B will produce incorrect results.
- The lost update problem: A transaction B writes a data item for the first time which has already been written by another concurrent transaction A while still in progress. In this case we lose the value written by transaction B to transaction A because of overwriting. According to the rules of precedence the first value should be read by the transactions first before the second value. As a consequence of this, the transactions yield wrong results.
- The incorrect summary problem: We have one transaction A in execution that considers all the values of the multiple instances of a single data item and we have another transaction B whose operations change the value of some of the instances. Therefore the end result does not reflect the correct summary. This is necessary for correctness. Also it is possible that certain results might have not been included in the summary depending on the time instances at which the updates were made.
The database systems that require high transactional performance need that there concurrent transaction are executed properly so as to meet the goals. In fact, for modern businesses, a database cannot even be considered which does not meet such goals. Now what are these goals? Let us see below:
- Correctness: For attaining this goal, it is important that the system allows the execution of only the serializable schedules. If there is no serializability, we might face the above listed problems. Serializability can be defined as the equivalency of a schedule to some serial schedule having the same transactions. The transactions must be sequential in nature void of any time overlaps and isolated. The highest isolation level can be obtained only through serializability. In some cases, serializability might be cut down for allowing system to give better performance. It might also be relaxed in distributed environments for satisfying their availability. But this is done only on the condition that there is no compromise with correctness. A practical example is of the transactions involving money. If we relax serializability here, money can be transferred to the wrong account. Serializability is achieved by concurrency control mechanisms by means of the conflict serializability. This is nothing but a special case of serializability.
- Recoverability: This is another major goal which insists that after a crash the database must be able to recover efficiently without losing the effects of the successfully committed transactions. Recoverability ensures that the database system is able to tolerate the faults and might not get corrupted because of the media failure. The responsibility of the protection of the data that system stores in its database is given to the recovery manager. This component works together with the concurrency control component for providing an all time available and reliable access to data. Together these two components keep the database system in a consistent state.
The database systems must ensure that the integrity of the transaction is not affected by any kind of fault. In the modern world, with high frequency of transactions, and large monetary values at stake, any problem or violation of the above goals can be very expensive.