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Thursday, December 24, 2009

RS422 Standard

RS-422 is a telecommunications standard for binary serial communications between devices. It is the protocol or specifications that must be followed to allow two devices that implement this standard to speak to each other. RS-422 is an updated version of the original serial protocol known as RS-232.

This standard was introduced in 1975 to offer improvements over the older RS-232 standard. It provides a balanced line with optional termination. The standard uses a voltage differential of 2v min to 5v max to represent the binary 0's and 1's. The specification allows data rates up to 10M baud at 40 feet maximum cable length.
The maximum cable length that can be driven will depend on the baud rate, the driver/receiver IC's, the cable type, and the amount of electrical noise in the surrounding environment. RS-422 can be used for point-to-point communication or for multi-drop one-master/many-slave systems.

The RS-422 standard only defines the characteristic requirements for the balanced line drivers and receivers. It does not specify one specific connector, signal names or operations. RS-422 interfaces are typically used when the data rate or distance criteria cannot be met with RS-232. The RS-422 standard allows for operation of up to 10 receivers from a single transmitter. The standard does not define operations of multiple tri-stated transmitters on a link.

RS-422 is a balanced four wire system. The signal sent from the DTE device is transmitted to the DCE device through two wires and the signal sent from the DEC device to the DTE device is transmitted through the other two wires. The signals on each pair of wires are the mirror opposite of each other, i.e., a "1" datum is transmitted as a plus 2 volt reference on one wire and a minus 2 volt reference on the other wire. To send a "0" datum, a minus 2 volt reference is transmitted through one wire and a plus 2 volt reference on the other wire. That is the opposite of what was done to transmit a \'1\' datum.

The RS-422-A interfaces between the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) or in any point-to-point interconnection of signals between digital equipment. It employs the electrical characteristics of balanced-voltage digital interface circuits.

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