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Wednesday, August 15, 2007

Definition of testing terms: M - Z

Monkey Testing.(smart monkey testing) Input are generated from probability distributions that reflect actual expected usage statistics -- e.g., from user profiles. There are different levels of IQ in smart monkey testing. In the simplest, each input is considered independent of the other inputs. That is, a given test requires an input vector with five components. In low IQ testing, these would be generated independently. In high IQ monkey testing, the correlation (e.g., the covariance) between these input distribution is taken into account. In all branches of smart monkey testing, the input is considered as a single event.

Maximum Simultaneous Connection testing. This is a test performed to determine the number of connections which the firewall or Web server is capable of handling.

Mutation testing. A testing strategy where small variations to a program are inserted (a mutant), followed by execution of an existing test suite. If the test suite detects the mutant, the mutant is retired. If undetected, the test suite must be revised.

Multiple Condition Coverage. A test coverage criteria which requires enough test cases such that all possible combinations of condition outcomes in each decision, and all points of entry, are invoked at least once.[G.Myers] Contrast with branch coverage, condition coverage, decision coverage, path coverage, statement coverage.

Negative test. A test whose primary purpose is falsification; that is tests designed to brake the software

Orthogonal array testing: Technique can be used to reduce the number of combination and provide maximum coverage with a minimum number of TC.Pay attention to the fact that it is an old and proven technique. The OAT was introduced for the first time by Plackett and Burman in 1946 and was implemented by G. Taguchi, 1987

Orthogonal array testing: Mathematical technique to determine which variations of parameters need to be tested.

Oracle. Test Oracle: a mechanism to produce the predicted outcomes to compare with the actual outcomes of the software under test [fromBS7925-1]

Parallel Testing Testing a new or an alternate data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system. The other system is considered as the standard of comparison. Syn: parallel run.[ISO]

Performance Testing. Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specific performance requirements [BS7925-1]

Prior Defect History Testing. Test cases are created or rerun for every defect found in prior tests of the system.

Qualification Testing. (IEEE) Formal testing, usually conducted by the developer for the consumer, to demonstrate that the software meets its specified requirements. See: acceptance testing.

Quality. The degree to which a program possesses a desired combination of attributes that enable it to perform its specified end use.

Quality Assurance (QA) Consists of planning, coordinating and other strategic activities associated with measuring product quality against external requirements and specifications (process-related activities).

Quality Control (QC) Consists of monitoring, controlling and other tactical activities associated with the measurement of product quality goals.

Our definition of Quality: Achieving the target (not conformance to requirements as used by many authors) & minimizing the variability of the system under test

Race condition defect. Many concurrent defects result from data-race conditions. A data-race condition may be defined as two accesses to a shared variable, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to prevent simultaneous access. However, not all race conditions are defects.

Recovery testing Testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.

Regression Testing. Testing conducted for the purpose of evaluating whether or not a change to the system (all CM items) has introduced a new failure. Regression testing is often accomplished through the construction, execution and analysis of product and system tests.

Regression Testing. - testing that is performed after making a functional improvement or repair to the program. Its purpose is to determine if the change has regressed other aspects of the program

Reengineering .The process of examining and altering an existing system to reconstitute it in a new form. May include reverse engineering (analyzing a system and producing a representation at a higher level of abstraction, such as design from code), restructuring (transforming a system from one representation to another at the same level of abstraction), recommendation (analyzing a system and producing user and support documentation), forward engineering (using software products derived from an existing system, together with new requirements, to produce a new system), and translation (transforming source code from one language to another or from one version of a language to another).

Reference testing. A way of deriving expected outcomes by manually validating a set of actual outcomes. A less rigorous alternative to predicting expected outcomes in advance of test execution.

Reliability testing. Verify the probability of failure free operation of a computer program in a specified environment for a specified time.

Range Testing. For each input identifies the range over which the system behavior should be the same.

Risk management. An organized process to identify what can go wrong, to quantify and access associated risks, and to implement/control the appropriate approach for preventing or handling each risk identified.

Robust test. A test, that compares a small amount of information, so that unexpected side effects are less likely to affect whether the test passed or fails.

Sanity Testing - typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is often crashing systems, bogging down systems to a crawl, or destroying databases, the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.

Sensitive test. A test, that compares a large amount of information, so that it is more likely to defect unexpected differences between the actual and expected outcomes of the test.

Specification-based test. A test, whose inputs are derived from a specification.

State-based testing Testing with test cases developed by modeling the system under test as a state machine

State Transition Testing. Technique in which the states of a system are fist identified and then test cases are written to test the triggers to cause a transition from one condition to another state.

Static testing. Source code analysis. Analysis of source code to expose potential defects.

Statistical testing. A test case design technique in which a model is used of the statistical distribution of the input to construct representative test cases.

Stealth bug. A bug that removes information useful for its diagnosis and correction.

Storage test. Study how memory and space is used by the program, either in resident memory or on disk. If there are limits of these amounts, storage tests attempt to prove that the program will exceed them.

Stress / Load / Volume test. Tests that provide a high degree of activity, either using boundary conditions as inputs or multiple copies of a program executing in parallel as examples.

Structural Testing. (1)(IEEE) Testing that takes into account the internal mechanism [structure] of a system or component. Types include branch testing, path testing, statement testing. (2) Testing to insure each program statement is made to execute during testing and that each program statement performs its intended function. Contrast with functional testing. Syn: white-box testing, glass-box testing, logic driven testing.

System testing Black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications; covers all combined parts of a system.

Table testing. Test access, security, and data integrity of table entries.

Test Bed. An environment containing the hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test.

Test Case. A set of test inputs, executions, and expected results developed for a particular objective.

Test Coverage The degree to which a given test or set of tests addresses all specified test cases for a given system or component.

Test Criteria. Decision rules used to determine whether software item or software feature passes or fails a test.

Test Documentation. (IEEE) Documentation describing plans for, or results of, the testing of a system or component, Types include test case specification, test incident report, test log, test plan, test procedure, test report.

Test Driver A software module or application used to invoke a test item and, often, provide test inputs (data), control and monitor execution. A test driver automates the execution of test procedures.

Test Harness A system of test drivers and other tools to support test execution (e.g., stubs, executable test cases, and test drivers). See: test driver.

Test Item. A software item which is the object of testing.

Test Log A chronological record of all relevant details about the execution of a test.

Test Plan. A high-level document that defines a testing project so that it can be properly measured and controlled. It defines the test strategy and organized elements of the test life cycle, including resource requirements, project schedule, and test requirements

Test Procedure. A document, providing detailed instructions for the [manual] execution of one or more test cases. [BS7925-1] Often called - a manual test script.

Test Status. The assessment of the result of running tests on software.

Test Stub A dummy software component or object used (during development and testing) to simulate the behaviour of a real component. The stub typically provides test output.

Test Suites A test suite consists of multiple test cases (procedures and data) that are combined and often managed by a test harness.

Test Tree. A physical implementation of Test Suite.

Testability. Attributes of software that bear on the effort needed for validating the modified software

Testing. The execution of tests with the intent of providing that the system and application under test does or does not perform according to the requirements specification.

Unit Testing. Testing performed to isolate and expose faults and failures as soon as the source code is available, regardless of the external interfaces that may be required. Oftentimes, the detailed design and requirements documents are used as a basis to compare how and what the unit is able to perform. White and black-box testing methods are combined during unit testing.

Usability testing. Testing for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective, and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.

Validation. The comparison between the actual characteristics of something (e.g. a product of a software project and the expected characteristics).Validation is checking that you have built the right system.

Verification The comparison between the actual characteristics of something (e.g. a product of a software project) and the specified characteristics.Verification is checking that we have built the system right.

Volume testing. Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data.

Walkthrough In the most usual form of term, a walkthrough is step by step simulation of the execution of a procedure, as when walking through code line by line, with an imagined set of inputs. The term has been extended to the review of material that is not procedural, such as data descriptions, reference manuals, specifications, etc.

White Box Testing (glass-box). Testing is done under a structural testing strategy and require complete access to the object¨ˆs structure ¡Ìthat is, the source code.

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